Guide United States Merchant Marine Casualties of World War II, rev ed.

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As you will see from the attached paper the head and front of the Bermudian objection is to the proposed position of the military aerodrome and, in a minor degree, to the islands selected for the magazines as they adjoin the very narrow entrance into Hamilton Harbour. The alternative scheme provides for a military aerodrome and possibly a seaplane base to be concentrated at the Eastern end of the island which would make it easier for the United States to keep control over its own activities there and would avoid the disturbance to the island which is involved in the present plan.

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It is estimated that the construction of an aerodrome on and around Long Bird Island would neither take longer nor be more expensive than that now proposed and would give longer run-ways in both directions. The Governor assures me that the people of Bermuda are most anxious to cooperate in providing the facilities needed by the United States and I am sure you will agree with me In thinking that if the proposed naval and air bases can be carried out with the good will of the people of Bermuda it will make the practical working of Anglo-American cooperation in Bermuda much easier in the future.

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If Admiral Greenslade wishes to have more details of the new proposal, my Naval Attache, Admiral Pott, will do his best to supply him with them. November 5. Named after Admiral Jervis, it was attacked by the German 11 in-gunned pocket battleship Admiral Scheer in mid-Atlantic. The convoy was ordered to scatter as Jervis Bay headed for the "Scheer", guns firing. The end was in no doubt and she went down with all her crew including a number of Canadians, but her sacrifice saved all but five of the merchant ships. There is a memorial to the ship at Bermuda's Albouy's Point.

The brass plaque on the monument asks us to "Remember Captain E. All of its vessels were named after Australian bays, Jervis Bay being some 90 miles north of Sydney. After the outbreak of war between England and Germany in , the ship was commandeered by the Royal Navy and fitted out with eight six-inch guns. First sent on station to the South Atlantic, the vessel was assigned to Bermuda Convoy Escort Duty in May , and from June to the Bermuda and Halifax Escort Service, a service that would last but a mere six months, ending its demise on November 5 at position Convoy HX 84 became its prey as the sun set on the cold, grey reaches of the North Atlantic.

Captain Edward S.

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Fogarty Fegen, commanding officer of the Jervis Bay, immediately ordered the helmsman to set a beeline directly into the guns of the Admiral Scheer, to allow the convoy to scatter and escape as best it could. The Jervis Bay was out of action in 15 minutes and sank two hours later with the loss of men, still drawing fire from the Admiral Scheer.

Sixty-five of the crew were rescued by the Swedish vessel Stureholm. The citation for his VC notes his "Valour in challenging hopeless odds and giving his live to save the many ships it was his duty to protect". A tanker, the San Demetrio, was also shelled and set afire, its crew abandoning ship. The ship was found by some of her crew in a lifeboat two days later, still on fire. They climbed back on board, put out the fires, repaired the engines and limped into port almost two weeks after the tanker was declared to be a loss, such is the courage of the merchant mariner.

The Jervis Bay had seven six-inch Mark VII guns and two three-inch anti-aircraft guns, which figured little in the ensuing battle. It was the proverbial sitting duck, with guns half the range of its opponent. She was refitted as a heavy cruiser and began raiding in November , sinking 17 merchant ships for , gross tons. After "faultily concentrating her effort on the armed merchant cruiser, Jervis Bay", she allowed Convoy HX84 to scatter.

Thereafter the Admiral Scheer disrupted Allied shipping as far away as the Indian Ocean, returning to port in April , having never been located by Allied hunter forces. Under Captain Theodor Krancke, the ship was the most successful capital commerce raider of the war.

She was then used ineffectively in the Artic and Baltic and was sunk by RAF bombers in Kiel on April 9, , later buried under a new dock. The raider weighed in at 16, gross tons, which could be propelled at almost 30 knots. It was commissioned in November with a length of feet and a beam of 71 feet. The vessel mounted six inch guns in two turrets of three; eight 5. On at least one occasion, her crew participated in local cricket matches. A photo after one such match was first published in the Scottish newspaper the John O'Groats Journal.


A sundial memorial to the lost sailors was erected at Albouy's Point within a year of the incident and is annually honored on Remembrance Day in a service nowadays led by the Bermuda Sea Cadets. Eighteen of the crew were from the county of Caithness in north-east Scotland, of whom nine died when the ship was sunk.

Among other things, he colluded with Stevenson in the opening up and censorship of mail bound to and from Europe and the USA.

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November British newspaper proprietor who, with his brother Alfred Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Northcliffe, built the most successful journalistic empire in British history and created popular journalism in that country. A shy individual, he let his brother handle the public and journalistic side of the business, while he handled financial matters. Upon the completion of the job, Harmsworth went to Bermuda to take a rest. He died of dropsy in Bermuda at the age of He is buried in grave , a prominent one by itself at St. Paul's Churchyard, immediately behind on the north side of the church in Paget Parish.

Other accounts paint a different story, that he had been a pre-war admirer of Hitler been photographed with him several times, had also given his full support to Oswald Mosley and the National Union of Fascists. He wrote an article, Hurrah for the Blackshirts , on 22nd January, , in which he praised Mosley for his "sound, commonsense, Conservative doctrine". Another title owned by Rothermere, The Sunday Dispatch , even sponsored a Blackshirt beauty competition.

The Daily Mail continued to give its support to the fascists. It was alleged the Daily Mail 's Jewish advertisers had threatened to place their ads in a different paper if Rothermere continued the pro-fascist campaign. People not so much concerned with territorial readjustment as with dread of another war with its accompanying bloodbath.

Frederick the Great was a great popular figure. I salute your excellency's star which rises higher and higher. But Bermuda was a British colony, he was not arrested here.. Lord Rothermere, as a young man and later, during one of his pre-war in this photo, meetings with Hitler.

Construction was approved to occur in Bermuda from scratch of two new military bases for the USA, one on St. They were on a no-rent year lease basis. They involved over acres of both Crown-held and privately owned lands.

They took two years to build and cost US taxpayers over US 45 million. In Castle Harbour, entire islands were bull-dozed and destroyed, including the largest, Long Bird Island.

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All buildings then on it were destroyed, with the exception of the easternmost house, which became the home of the commandant of Fort Bell, later Kindley Field, and later US Naval Station Bermuda. To the east of Long Bird, the following islands were reduced to ground level and buried under the Station and airfield: Pudding, Cave, Little Round, Sandy, Jones, Round, Long, Graces, and Westcott, the last having two dwellings upon it. A goodly portion of St David's Island disappeared by bulldozing and the eastern end of the Fort Bell airfield appeared in place of Easter Lily fields and ancestral homes of a number of Bermudian families, irrevocably gone.

Bermudian Douglas William Howard Hutchings was lost at sea. He was an oiler, whose first job was in the engine room of the Queen of Bermuda, but had transferred to another vessel. At the time of his death, Queen of Bermuda was on duty in the Falkland Islands far to the south. There were two British vessels sunk that day, the Zealandic and the Oropesa. Both were attacked off Rockall, some miles from Iceland and Ireland on the route from the North Sea to the Atlantic.

The cargo ship Zealandic was lost with all hands and Oropesa, a passenger liner, lost crew and passengers, with being rescued. Given that he was originally on a passenger liner, it is possible that Hutchings was lost on the Oropesa. It was sunk by U, a boat familiar to most through its incarnation as the lead actor in the film, Das Boot. February Adjacent water, ideal for seaplane operation, and proximity to existing ship channels resulted in the choice of Morgan and Tucker Islands, situated in Great Sound, within the hook of the western end of Hamilton Island, together with an adjacent area on Hamilton Island at Kings Point, as sites for the air station and the operating base.

Darrell's Island, also in Great Sound and about a mile and a half to the east, then in use as an air station by commercial airlines, was developed as an auxiliary seaplane base. M. Browning - English / Military / History: Books

Submarine facilities were planned for construction on Ordnance Island, at the eastern end of the Bermuda group, in St. Georges Harbor, adjacent to the town of St. This location, while remote from the operating base, was chosen because of the availability of the site, the existing facilities, and its proximity to the sea lanes serving the islands. The general topography of the leased areas was gently rolling, varying in elevation from sea level to a maximum of 40 feet.

The base development plan issued by the Chief of Naval Operations to support the 15,plane program, indicated Bermuda as a major naval air station, with facilities for the operation of two patrol squadrons of seaplanes on a permanent basis and one additional squadron with tender support.

In addition, facilities were to be provided to support the emergency operation of one carrier group from an airfield to be developed by the Army. Bermuda-based operatives began to piece together intelligence gathered by both British and US radio monitors on German U-boat fleets in the Atlantic and elsewhere and how they were being instructed by radio by the German high command.

British and American eavesdroppers were able to gain information on their movements. U boat captains were so convinced about the impregnability of their Enigma coding system each submarine had and the way the coding machine system changed that they became careless in using radio. The British in particular were also locating submarine positions by taking bearings on their radio transmissions. They were successful and what became the two base were located at St.

David's and Southampton parishes. March 1. While Anglo-American staff conferences were going on in Washington on how to best combat the Germans, the Battle of the Atlantic had taken an extremely critical turn. In Admiral Stork's opinion it had become, in fact, "hopeless except as we take strong measures to save it. Admiral Stark had not at all exaggerated the seriousness of the situation. By March it seemed to him only a matter of at most two months before the United States would be at war, "possibly undeclared," with Germany and Italy; although the Army at this time was counting on at least five months' grace.