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Mihiel and in the Meuse-Argonne, where he was twice cited for gallantry and where he was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel on the battlefield. He was promoted to Lieutenant General in , with the very same stars which George S. Patton, Jr. Eisenhower on his own promotion. He was a tough commander, not given to sentiment, reticent of manner, short of speech in any public appearances and was not popular with his troops. During the war, he took part in the drive across France following the Normandy Invasion, the capture of Metz and the liberation of Buchenwald.

During the Korean War he performed ably and his defense of the Naktong Line is regarded as a military classic. He was comander of the 8th Army in Korea when he was killed in the wreck of his jeep. His body was escorted back to the United States by his son, Sam Sims Walker, a battalion commander in the 19th Infantry in Korea at the time of his father's death. He was buried in Section 34 of Arlington National Cemetery. His wife, Caroline E. Walker May 16, March 31, , is buried with him. Died December 23, in Korea.


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In Korea he commanded 8th Army until his death in an automobile accident on December 23, Walton H. Military Academy at West Point, graduating in During the interim war years Walker held a variety of assignments. Walton Walker excelled in the training of troops and held a number of progressive training positions prior to World War II. He assumed command of the 3rd Armored Division in early Patton and rose to the rank of lieutenant general brevet.

He was well respected by Patton and he developed a reputation as a tough leader and fighter. After World War II he filled several assignments before taking command of the Eighth Army, which was performing occupation duty in Japan. There he obtained his permanent promotion to major general.

The Eighth Army was composed of four divisions, the 1st Cavalry, 7th, 24th, and 25th Infantry Divisions. The combat readiness of the Eighth Army had declined due to congressionally imposed postwar budget and personnel cuts. The troops were largely undertrained, lacked sufficient equipment, and had grown soft with the relaxed pace of their occupation duty. Only 10 percent of the soldiers had combat experience. Despite the cuts, which were largely beyond his control, Walker instituted a massive training program toward the latter part of to upgrade the combat readiness of the Eighth Army.

Unfortunately, the training exercises and programs were too late to adequately prepare the occupation forces with the combat skills they would desperately need in the coming months. The Korean War broke out on June 25, , with a massive multi-front attack by the North Korean Army across the 38th parallel, an artificial border which divided North and South Korea.

On June 30, General Walker received his battle orders formally committing his forces to the Korean conflict. On July 13, Walker was placed in charge of all U. Army forces in Korea, and four days later was also put in charge of all South Korean forces. It was commonly thought that the North Koreans would turn and run once they ran into American soldiers.

Walker, on the contrary, was under no illusions about the capabilities of the Eighth Army. However, he had already run afoul of his superior, General Douglas MacArthur, and was in no position to question the orders he had received. By July, with the fall of Taejon, it was apparent to General Walker that the Eighth Army would be forced to pull back even further. He feared for the safety of his own command post in Taegu, the nerve center of the perimeter defense.

By late July his forces equaled in numbers the invading North Korean Army, although many of his troops were engaged in supply and support roles.

However, the quality of the Allied forces remained deficient and the North Koreans held the initiative. By now his perimeter had shrunk to an area roughly fifty miles wide by one hundred miles in length from north to south. Thus Walker knew every major North Korean movement prior to its occurrence. He had his major units deployed on the front lines, yet kept a mobile reserve that could be rushed in to plug any local breakthrough. Often Walker could be found at the front line personally appraising the battle situation and issuing orders to local commanders.

The prevalence of ideal levels across 7 health factors and health behaviors generally was lower with age, with much lower prevalence among older versus younger age groups. The exception was diet, for which prevalence of ideal levels was highest in older adults. Chart displays the prevalence estimates for the population of US children 12—19 years of age meeting different numbers of criteria for ideal cardiovascular health of 7 possible in to Charts and display the age-standardized prevalence estimates of US adults meeting different numbers of criteria for ideal cardiovascular health of 7 possible in to , overall and stratified by age, sex, and race.

This is much worse than among children 12—19 years of age. Younger adults are more likely to meet greater numbers of ideal metrics than are older adults. At any age, females tend to have more metrics at ideal levels than do males. Blacks and Hispanics tend to have fewer metrics at ideal levels than whites or other races. Approximately 6 in 10 white adults and 7 in 10 black or Hispanic adults have no more than 3 of 7 metrics at ideal levels. Chart displays the age-standardized percentages of US adults who meet different numbers of criteria for both poor and ideal cardiovascular health.

Meeting the AHA Strategic Impact Goals is predicated on reducing the relative percentage of those with poor levels while increasing the relative percentage of those with ideal levels for each of the 7 metrics.

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Using data from the BRFSS, Fang et al 30 estimated the prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health by state all 7 metrics at ideal level , which ranged from 1. Southern states tended to have higher percentages of poor cardiovascular health, lower percentages of ideal cardiovascular health, and lower mean cardiovascular health scores than New England and Western states Chart See Charts through The prevalence of intermediate levels of diet AHA diet score 40—79 increased from These improvements were largely attributable to increased whole grain consumption and decreased SSB consumption in both children and adults, as well as small, nonsignificant trends in increased fruits and vegetables Chapter 5.

No major trends were evident in either children or adults meeting the target for consumption of fish or sodium. Other metrics do not show consistent trends over time in children. Other metrics do not show consistent trends over time in adults. See Tables through Taken together, these data continue to demonstrate both the tremendous relevance of the AHA Impact Goals for cardiovascular health and the progress that will be needed to achieve these goals by the year For each cardiovascular health metric, modest shifts in the population distribution toward improved health would produce appreciable increases in the proportion of Americans in both ideal and intermediate categories.

Larger population reductions in BP would lead to even greater numbers of people with ideal levels of BP. Such small reductions in population BP could result from small health behavior changes at a population level, such as increased PA, increased fruit and vegetable consumption, decreased sodium intake, decreased adiposity, or some combination of these and other lifestyle changes, with resulting substantial projected decreases in CVD rates in US adults. A range of complementary strategies and approaches can lead to improvements in cardiovascular health. Such approaches can focus on both 1 improving cardiovascular health among those who currently have less than optimal levels and 2 preserving cardiovascular health among those who currently have ideal levels in particular, children, adolescents, and young adults as they age.

The metrics with the greatest potential for improvement in the United States are health behaviors, including diet quality, PA, and body weight.

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However, each of the 7 cardiovascular health metrics can be improved and deserves major focus. Abbreviations Used in Chapter 2. Tobacco use is one of the leading preventable causes of death in the United States and globally. Rates are most current data available as of PAF indicates population attributable fraction.

General Walton H. Walker: Forgotten Hero - The Man Who Saved Korea

Notably, school-based surveys may include students who are 18 years old, who are legally permitted to smoke and have higher rates of smoking. Data derived from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Percentage of US middle school students who have ever used tobacco, by type of product National Youth Tobacco Survey, — It does not include use of any other product. It does not include use of noncombustible products or e-cigarettes. It does not include use of combustible products or e-cigarettes.

Percentage of US high school students who have ever used tobacco, by type of product National Youth Tobacco Survey, — Please click here to view the chart and its legend. Other forms of tobacco use are becoming increasingly common. The variety of e-cigarette—related products has increased exponentially, giving rise to the more general term electronic nicotine delivery systems.

Thus, each section below will address the most recent statistical estimates for combustible cigarettes, electronic nicotine delivery systems, and other forms of tobacco use if such estimates are available.

References | Hypertension Research

In , tobacco use within the past month for youth 12 to 17 years of age varied modestly by region: 6. In , By region, the prevalence of current cigarette smokers was highest in the Midwest The state with the lowest age-adjusted percentage of current cigarette smokers was Utah 9. In to , among females 15 to 44 years of age, past-month cigarette use was lower among those who were pregnant Rates were higher among females 18 to 25 years of age Smoking declines by pregnancy trimester, from In the NHIS 4 :. Per NSDUH data for individuals aged 12 to 17 years, overall the lifetime use of tobacco products declined from The lifetime use of tobacco products among adolescents 12 to 17 years old varied by the following 1 :.


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  • Lifetime tobacco use for people with psychiatric diagnoses was Overall mortality among US smokers is 3 times higher than that for never-smokers. On average, male smokers die Since the first report on the dangers of smoking was issued by the US Surgeon General in , tobacco control efforts have contributed to a reduction of 8 million premature smoking-attributable deaths.

    If current smoking trends continue, 5. See Charts and On the basis of weighted NHIS data, the current smoking status among to year-old men declined From to , adjusted prevalence rates for tobacco use in individuals with serious psychological distress according to the Kessler Scale went from A report of the US Surgeon General on how tobacco causes disease summarized an extensive body of literature on smoking and CVD and the mechanisms through which smoking is thought to cause CVD.