All packaged foods and beverages, must be manufactured according to FDA regulations and must meet all applicable quality and safety standards. The CFIA focuses more on regulations pertaining to packaging, labeling, advertising, and other safety practices, whereas the FDAR focuses more on the water itself. Some of the regulations include: labeling terms, safety standards i. Emergency preparedness refers to the steps taken prior to a natural disaster or emergency to ensure safety throughout the event. In hot climates, FEMA recommends doubling this quantity.
For the water supply, FEMA recommends commercially bottled water kept in a cool, dark place. As an alternative, FEMA recommends using disinfected food-grade water containers to store tap water and replacing the water every six months. AmeriCares , an international disaster relief non-profit, donated , bottles of water to residents in and around Moore, Oklahoma following the May tornadoes.
In August , city officials in Toledo, Ohio banned local tap water after toxins from an algae bloom in Lake Erie were found in the city's water supply. Bottled water is bought for many different reasons including taste, convenience , poor tap water quality and safety concerns, health concerns and as a substitute for sugary drinks.
Most bottled water containers are made from recyclable PET plastic , and some of these bottles end up in the waste stream in landfills. The financial and environmental costs of transportation of bottled water has been another concern because of the energy used and the consequent release of carbon dioxide and the potential impact on climate change.
In some cases it can be shown that bottled water is actually tap water. It has been argued that bottled water companies should only exist for emergency situations when public water supplies are unsafe, unavailable or overwhelmed. One American study showed that "even in areas with safe tap water, African American, Polish American and Latino parents were three times more likely to give their children mostly bottled water compared to non-Latino white children, because of their belief that bottled water is safer, cleaner, better tasting, or more convenient.
Bottled water is perceived by many as being a safer alternative to other sources of water such as tap water. Bottled water usage has increased even in countries where clean tap water is present. The success of bottled water marketing can be seen by Perrier 's transformation of a bottle of water into a status symbol. Consumers tend to choose bottled water due to health related reasons. The International Bottled Water Association guidelines state that bottled water companies cannot compare their product to tap water in marketing operations.
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Consumers are also affected by memories associated with particular brands. It was theorized that ethnic differences in bottled water usage "mirror the variability of water system quality between urban, suburban and rural areas Abrahams et al. This finding was "also explained in terms of the poor quality of urban tap water and of the bad condition of the old lead pipes in French cities. Nonetheless, while poor tap water quality may motivate the public to search for alternative sources, it alone does not necessarily lead to higher consumption of bottled water.
Some surveys "found that bottled water, far from being an alternative to tap water, seems to be mostly consumed as a substitute for alcoholic and traditional soft drinks e. AWWA-RF ; FWR — the exception being when water contamination presents serious health risks and the trust in the tap water company is highly eroded e. Lonnon Many low-income families avoid drinking tap water because they fear it may cause sickness.
Globally, there is an intensifying environmental backlash against bottled water usage. As global consumption of bottled water soars, environmental groups such as the World Wide Fund for Nature WWF and Greenpeace have warned of the huge environmental footprint of the plastic in which the water is packaged. In , a WWF study, "Bottled water: understanding a social phenomenon", warned that in many countries, bottled water may be no safer or healthier than tap water and it sold for up to 1, times the price.
It said the booming market would put severe pressure on recycling plastics and could lead to landfill sites drowning in mountains of plastic bottles. Bottled water is more expensive than municipally-supplied tap water. Tap water sources and delivery systems taps and faucets are fixed in place while bottled water is available at many differing price points and in a variety of size formats. In general, women are more likely to drink bottled water than men, and Hispanic women are the group most likely to drink bottled water.
BMC's research also shows that consumers actually tend to buy bottled water in bulk from supermarkets Convenience stores are likely to have higher prices 4. The remaining 9. In response to environmental and financial concerns, a few localities and U.
In , the small New South Wales town of Bundanoon voted to become the first town in the world to ban the selling or dispensing of bottled water. After a Sydney-based beverage company wanted to open a water extraction plant in the New South Wales town Bundanoon, residents outlawed the sale of bottled water. The town continues to fight the company's proposal in court. In , the town of Concord, Massachusetts became the first in the United States to ban the sale of bottled water. Specifically, sales of non-sparkling, unflavored drinking water in single-serving Polyethelyne terephthalate PET bottles of 1 litre 34 ounces or less are prohibited.
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The ban went into effect on 1 January Under the Safe Drinking Water Act the EPA has set maximum contaminant levels for approximately 90 contaminants that might be found in drinking water and 15 secondary maximum contaminant levels. In some areas, tap water may contain added fluoride , which helps prevent tooth decay and cavities. The Food and Drug Administration of the United States does not require bottled water manufacturers to list the fluoride content on the label. However, unlike tap water where the amount of fluoride added by municipalities to drinking water is not federally regulated, the FDA has set specific limits for how much fluoride may be found in bottled water.
Several studies have examined the content of fluoride and other chemicals in bottled water as well as the accuracy of these values as printed on the labels showing some significant difference between labeled and measured value. According to a NRDC study, in which roughly 22 percent of brands were tested, at least one sample of bottled drinking water contained chemical contaminants at levels above strict state health limits. Some of the contaminants found in the study could pose health risks if consumed over a long period of time.
Studies show that the plastics used for bottles contain chemicals having estrogenic activity , even when they claim otherwise. A study has recently found that the vast majority of bottled water contains microplastics.
Following this, the World Health Organization has launched a review into the safety of drinking microplastics. The tests were carried out at the State University of New York in Fredonia as part of a project involving original research and reporting by the US-based journalism organization Orb Media. Using a dye called Nile Red, which binds to free-floating pieces of plastic, the university's Prof Sherri Mason found an average of 10 plastic particles per litre of water, each larger than the size of a human hair. Smaller particles assumed to be plastic but not positively identified were found as well - an average of per litre.
There have been no major outbreaks of illness or serious safety concerns associated with bottled water in the past decade, an FDA official stated in testimony before a 9 July Congressional hearing. Subsequent research has estimated that number of illnesses to be closer to Bottled noncarbonated drinking water competes in the marketplace with carbonated beverages including carbonated water sold in individual plastic bottles. According to the Container Recycling Institute, sales of flavoured, non-carbonated drinks are expected to surpass soda sales by Bottled water may have reduced amounts of copper, lead, and other metal contaminants since it does not run through the plumbing pipes where tap water is exposed to metal corrosion; however, this varies by the household and plumbing system.
In much of the developed world, chlorine often is added as a disinfectant to tap water. If the water contains organic matter, this may produce other byproducts in the water such as trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids , which has shown to increase the risk of cancer. Anti-bottled-water-campaigns and organizations, such as Corporate Accountability International , typically argue that bottled water is no better than tap water, and emphasize the detrimental environmental side-effects of disposable plastic bottles.
The recent documentary Tapped argues against the bottled water industry, asserting that tap water is healthier, more environmentally sustainable, and more ecologically sound than bottled water.
The film focuses on the bottled water industry in the United States. The film has received largely positive reviews, and has spawned college campus groups such as Beyond the Bottle.
Yet, as many people remain generally unaware of the negative health and environmental impacts associated with bottled water, recent research in environmental psychology has started to investigate how to reduce the public's consumption of bottled water. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.
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Main article: Polyethylene terephthalate. Main article: PET bottle recycling.
See also: List of bottled water brands. Main article: Bottled water in the United States. Main article: Bottled water ban.
source link See also: Water supply network , Water quality , and Water carbonator. Jiangnan University. Archived from the original on 20 January Retrieved 17 October April Retrieved 22 July Great Lakes Law. European Federation of Bottled Waters.
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Archived from the original on 9 February Retrieved 23 October Archived from the original on 15 March Retrieved 16 July International Bottled Water Association. Retrieved 12 July Retrieved 12 September American Chemistry Council. Facts on PET. Retrieved 13 July Archived from the original on 6 March PET Resin Association. Retrieved 3 October Plastics Europe. Archived from the original PDF on 30 January Retrieved 4 October Archived from the original on 1 February Recycle Across America. Petcore Europe. Antea Group. Retrieved 17 July Life Cycle Inventory of the U.
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